Vol 4, No 1 (2021) > Articles >

Satisfaction With Dwelling Unit Attributes and Infrastructure Within Selected Public Housing Estates in Northern Nigeria

Joy Maina, Musa Dagoli, Abdulrazak Abdulkadir, Nurudeen Muhammad, Isa Muhammed, Bukhari Yusuf, Ternenge Mtan, Mahmud Abdulrazaq



This study assessed satisfaction with dwelling unit attributes as well as support services and infrastructure within public housing estates across Northern Nigeria as such studies are rare in literature but important for design and policymaking. Results of descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analyses and Regression from 125 respondents in Abuja, Dutse, Sokoto, Gombe and Potiskum revealed that support services and infrastructure notably water supply and waste disposal were inadequate. Although residents were fairly satisfied with their dwelling units (M 3.13), water supply influenced satisfaction ratings for service-related spaces including baths, toilets, cooking and storage. Other areas of dissatisfaction were number of bedrooms, quality of construction and sizes of living spaces. Residents were most satisfied with quality of natural lighting, ventilation, location of houses, noise as well as privacy levels. Results from PCA revealed that residents view satisfaction with their dwelling unit attributes and infrastructure in terms of design and cost, services and indoor environmental quality as well as electricity supply and noise levels. These three factors emerged as significant predictors of satisfaction with dwelling unit attributes and infrastructure, F (20.54, 18), p=0.000, R2=0.777, in a model that included tenant characteristics. Findings imply that inadequacy in water supply requires urgent attention within public housing estates in the region. Importantly, user perception in terms of the three predictors of satisfaction ought to guide design of future dwelling units within public housing estates in Northern Nigeria.

Keywords: Dwelling units; Infrastructure; Northern Nigeria; Public Housing; Satisfaction

Full PDF Download
Article Tools
   Citation Format


Adegbile, M., Onifade, V., & Adedire, F. (2020). Impacts of Residential Environments on Housing Satisfaction in Selected Neighbourhoods of Ogun State, Nigeria. In Journal of Architcture, Planning & Construction Management (Vol. 10, Issue 1).

Adegbile, M., Onifade, V., & Solanke, P. . (2019). Influence of Housing Attributes on Housing Satisfaction in Selected Residential Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Environmental Technology and Science Journal, 10(1), 1–15. https://ir.unilag.edu.ng/handle/123456789/8675

Adzande, P. (2013). Towards efficient provision of physical infrastructure in residential areas of Makurdi, Nigeria. In S. Laryea & S. A. Agyepong (Eds.), Procs 5th West Africa Built Environment Research Conference (pp. 1159–1171).

Aragonés, J. I., Amérigo, M., & Pérez-López, R. (2017). Residential Satisfaction and Quality of Life (pp. 311–328). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31416-7_17

Babalola, O., Ibem, E. O., & Ezema, I. C. (2019). Implementation of lean practices in the construction industry: A systematic review. In Building and Environment (Vol. 148, pp. 34–43). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.10.051

Bixley, B., & Yamane, T. (1965). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis. In The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science (2nd ed., Vol. 31, Issue 1). Harper and Row. https://doi.org/10.2307/139661

David Jiboye, A. (2012). Post-occupancy evaluation of residential satisfaction in Lagos, Nigeria: Feedback for residential improvement. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 1(3), 236–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2012.08.001

Durodola, O., Oloke, O. ., & Akunnaya, O. . (2016). Co-operative housing and basic infrastructure provision: A conceptual framework for effective Public Private Partnership. http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/8189/1/Unilag Journal.pdf

Elsinga, M., & Hoekstra, J. (2005). Homeownership and housing satisfaction. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 20(4), 401–424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10901-005-9023-4

Equere, E., Ibem, E., & Alagbe, O. (2020). Towards city resilience: the influence of socio-cultural and economic features of housing on population growth in public residential estates. Journal of Regional and City Planning, 31(2), 164–179. https://doi.org/10.5614/jpwk.2020.31.2.4

Etminani-Ghasrodashti, R., Majedi, H., & Paydar, M. (2017). Assessment of Residential Satisfaction in Mehr Housing Scheme: A Case Study of Sadra New Town, Iran. Housing, Theory and Society, 34(3), 323–342. https://doi.org/10.1080/14036096.2017.1298536

Fakere, A. A., Folorunso, C. O., Arayela, O., & Adedeji, Y. M. (2018). Participatory predictors of users’ satisfaction with housing infrastructure in Akure, Nigeria. Facilities, 36(13–14), 696–710. https://doi.org/10.1108/F-10-2017-0103

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. In Statistics (Vol. 58).

Galster, G. (1987). Identifying the correlates of dwelling satisfaction:An empirical critique. Environment and Behavior, 19(5), 539–568. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916587195001

Hussaini, I. U., Abubakar, S. K., Danmaraya, M. A., Sumaila, S. A., & Ibrahim, S. K. (2019). Sustainable urban development and the challenges of urban sprawl in ‘Abuja’ the federal capital city of Nigeria. West Africa Built Environment Research Conference, 1031–1050. https://doi.org/10.33796/waberconference2019.74

Ibem, Eziyi O., & Amole, D. (2013). Residential Satisfaction in Public Core Housing in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Social Indicators Research, 113(1), 563–581. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0111-z

Ibem, Eziyi O., Opoko, P. A., & Aduwo, E. B. (2017). Satisfaction with Neighbourhood Environments in Public Housing: Evidence from Ogun State, Nigeria. Social Indicators Research, 130(2), 733–757. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-1188-y

Ibem, Eziyi Offia. (2013). Accessibility of Services and Facilities for Residents in Public Housing in Urban Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Urban Forum, 24(3), 407–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12132-012-9185-6

Ibem, Eziyi Offia, & Aduwo, E. B. (2013). Assessment of residential satisfaction in public housing in Ogun State, Nigeria. Habitat International, 40, 163–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2013.04.001

Ibem, Eziyi Offia, & Alagbe, O. A. (2015). Investigating dimensions of housing adequacy evaluation by residents in public housing: Factor analysis approach. Facilities, 33(7–8), 465–484. https://doi.org/10.1108/F-02-2014-0017

Ige, V., & Evelyn, O. I. (2018). Public Private Partnership Residential Estates: Beneficiaries’ Satisfaction Assessment. Discovery, 54(272), 298–303.

Lar. (2019). Violence and Insecurity in Northwest Nigeria: Exploring the Role and Resilience of Local Actors. African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, 9(2), 123. https://doi.org/10.2979/africonfpeacrevi.9.2.07

Maina, J. J., Garba Zarafi, I., & Stanley, A. M. (2018). Unsatisfactory Amenities: Rethinking Management of University Staff Housing of Public Universities in Nigeria. In Savanna (Vol. 24, Issue 3). https://journal.abu.edu.ng/savannah/index.php/sav/article/view/90

Mammadi, A., Baba, H. M., Tukur, S., Muhammad, A. A., & Abdullahi, U. (2020). Measuring Residents Satisfaction Levels of Public Housing in Maiduguri Metropolis of Borno State, Nigeria. Path of Science, 6(3), 3001–3020.

Morakinyo, K. O. ., Okunola, A. S. ., Musibau, L. ., Odewande, A. G. ., & Dada, O. (2014). An assessment of housing infrastructural provision in public housing: A case study of Bashorun Housing Estate Akobo, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 6(13), 102–113. www.eajournals.org

Morris, E. W., & Winter, M. (1975). A Theory of Family Housing Adjustment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 37(1), 79. https://doi.org/10.2307/351032

Nigerian Investment Promotion Comission. (2020). Bouncing back: Nigeria Economic Sustainability Plan. https://nipc.gov.ng/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/NG-Economic-Sustainability-Plan-2020.pdf?

Ogu, V. I. (2002). Urban residential satisfaction and the planning implications in a developing world context: The example of Benin City, Nigeria. International Planning Studies, 7(1), 37–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563470220112599

Oladapo, A. (2006). A Study of Tenants’ Maintenance Awareness, Responsibility and Satisfaction in Institutional Housing in Nigeria. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 10(4), 217–231. https://doi.org/10.3846/1648715x.2006.9637554

Oladapo, R. A., & Adebayo, M. A. (2014). Effects of Housing Facilities on Residents’ Satisfaction in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. In Covenant Journal of Research in the Built Environment (CJRBE) (Vol. 2, Issue 2). https://journals.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/index.php/cjrbe/article/view/165

Oluwunmi, A. O., Akinjare, O. A., & Izobo-Martins, O. O. (2012). User’s Satisfaction with Residential Facilities in Nigerian Private Universities: A Study of Covenant University. Transnational Journal of Science and Technology, 2(11), 89–112.

Omolabi, A. . (2018). Neighbourhood Revitalisation and Housing Satisfaction: Enhancing Residents’ Quality of Life in Public Low-Income Housing in Lagos Metropolis Nigeria. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Salisu, U. O., Odulaja, A. O., Ogunseye, N. O., Fasina, S. O., & Okunubi, S. A. (2019). Residents’ Satisfaction with Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria. Ghana Journal of Geography, 11(1), 180–200.

Stanley, A. M. (2016). Impact of Electric Power Generators’ Variables on Noise-level Generation in Indoor Building Environments. The International Journal of the Constructed Environment, 8(1), 17–29. https://doi.org/10.18848/2154-8587/cgp/v08i01/17-29

Ukoha, O. M., & Beamish, J. O. (1997). Assessment of residents’ satisfaction with public housing in Abuja, Nigeria. Habitat International, 21(4), 445–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-3975(97)00017-9

Urbanet. (2018). Urbanisation and Urban Development in Nigeria. https://www.urbanet.info/urban-development-nigeria-infographics/

Wakuma Kitila, A. (2019). Factors Affecting Housing Adequacy and Accessibility in Harar City, Harari Regional State, Ethiopia. East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(1), 1–26. https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh/article/view/856

World Bank. (2020). Urban land area (sq. km) - Nigeria | Data. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.TOTL.UR.K2?locations=NG

Zaki, Y.M., Suleiman, N. E., & Teku, Y. (2015). An assessment of the conformity of housing standards in the rising urban development in Kaduna State. In S. Laryea & R. Leiringer (Eds.), West Africa Built Environment Research Conference (pp. 49–59).

Copyright © CSID - JID